*Simple Black Hole Paradox*

*By Wolfgang G. Gasser*

In *General
Relativity* the units of space and time are manipulated in such a way that
the speed of light remains constant despite [acceleration due to] gravitation.
That leads to obvious contradictions in the case of black holes. Albert
Einstein himself had overlooked the derivability of black holes from his theory
and argued that they are outside the range of application of *General
Relativity*.

Black
holes arise in *GR* in situations where classical physics would result in
escape velocities higher than the speed of light, or more exactly, where the difference
of gravitational potential
between the emission point of electromagnetic radiation and an observer is
bigger than:

*ΔV*_{black_hole}* = 0.5 c*^{2}

If the potential
difference *ΔV* is less than *ΔV** _{black_hole}*, electromagnetic
radiation can reach the observer with a frequency reduced by the following
factor (time dilation):

*√
[1 - ΔV*^{ }^{2}* / ΔV*_{black_hole}^{2}*]*

If the
sun shrank to the size needed for an escape velocity of exactly *c*, it would be a black hole for observers
outside our galaxy, because *ΔV > ΔV** _{black_hole}*, however not for observers on the earth, because

Translated
from* **Gravitation und
Aether**
*–
Discussion: *Black holes - Relative
or Absolute?*