Auf Deutsch

Pandualism (scientific alternative to reductionist materialism in the tradition of pantheism & panpsychism)

Pandualism is a philosophical basis for modern science. It is a further development and modern variant of the pantheist two-aspect monism of Baruch Spinoza (1632-1677). Pandualism, in the same way as its pantheist predecessors, incorporates both materialism and panpsychism. The main insight of panpsychism, going back to at least Nicolaus Cusanus (1401-1464), was this:


Living organisms do not grow from dead matter, but are built up by small individuals, not visible to the naked eye. In the meanwhile these individuals such as enzymes building up living cells can be observed with modern technology. Nevertheless the animal-like behavior of such sub-cellular entities and living cells is still denied, despite being so obvious to unprejudiced perception. [continue]


Uncensored (i.e. not peer-reviewed) scientific articles:

o        Pandualist Evolution Theory as an Alternative to Reductionist Darwinism

o        Demographic Saturation as an Alternative to all Demographic Transition Models, 1997

o        A Critical Analysis of the 2006 Revision of the UN World Population Prospects

o        William McDougall's Experiment on the Inheritance of Acquired Habits in Rats Suggesting Reincarnation

o        A simplified and less confusing notation for numbers

o        Light clock refutes constancy of speed of light

o        Reciprocal Time Dilation (Slowing) Explained

o        Principle of Lorentz Transformation Explained

o        Bell's Spaceship Paradox Refuting Special Relativity

o        Sagnac effect applied to the Earth orbiting the Sun

o        Superluminal information transfer confirmed by simple experiments (Coulomb-field propagation) 

o        Discussion on experiment:  Simple FTL experiment refutes J. C. Maxwell and A. Einstein

Scientific discussions:

o        Immanuel Kant versus Charles Darwin

o        Biological Evolution by Reincarnation - a Trivial Scientific Fact?

o        Missing Genetic Information Refutes Neo-Darwinism

o        Random mutations cannot explain evolution of humans

o        Probabilities of Abiogenesis and Evolution

o        Bee Death - The True Explanation

o        Enzymes do not conform to Brownian motion (2nd Law of Thermodynamics) but to animal-like behavior

o        Efficient Concept-Formation for Languages of the Future

o        Discussion on Evolution of Venus Temperature & Climate in the Context of Global Warming

o        Special Relativity Priority Question: Poincaré versus Einstein

o        Ether Drift Experiments & Aberration & Relationality vs. Relativity

o        The Myth of "Lorentz Transformation Reducing to Galilean Transformation"

o        Mass-Energy-Equivalence E = mc2 versus E2 = m2c4 + p2c2 & Photon Mass

o        Simultaneity, Contraction & Expansion in Special Relativity and Lorentz Ether Theory

o        Black holes - Relative or Absolute?

o        Neutrinos Questioned

o        Big-Bang Singularity & Finite Time in an Infinite Universe

o        Inertia, Mach's principle, frame dragging and galaxy rotation

o        The Mystery of Gamma-Ray Bursts, Very-High-Energy Gamma-Rays and Terrestrial Gamma Flashes/ Glows Explained by Photon Cohesion

o        Laboratory Flashes and Tokamak Disruptions: Random Laser Pulses instead of Runaways and Hard X-Rays?

o        Instantaneous Actions at a Distance Defended

o        Kinetic energy at atmospheric reentry from lunar mission

o        Moon rock samples faked by NASA?

o        Age and Origin of our Planetary System as a Supernova-Remnant

 Last update: 2015-05-20 

The name pandualism itself stresses the dualist aspect: On the one hand mass/energy "taking up space" (extension), and on the other hand the psychic, i.e. souls representing information and having the basic properties of life: perception, memory and behavior.  Spinoza considered his own panpsychist philosophy primarily a monism, because he opposed the forms of mind-body dualism of his time. The question may arise: How can pandualism mean essentially the same as two-aspect monism, opposing forms of mind-body dualism?


The answer is rather simple: Both isms exclude animals or humans without souls, and ghosts or angels without bodies. And both deny the existence of matter without a psychic resp. information aspect.


Light consists on the one hand of mass/energy. On the other hand light consists of individual photons, showing a very complex behavior allowing us to optically perceive our environment. Such photons of visible light preferably come into existence and travel together in coherent groups. A coherent group of photons has more to do with a flock of birds than with dead mass/energy.


Imagine a single electron and a single proton at a mutual distance of 100 m both at rest in empty space: Already within minutes the electron and proton will have united into a hydrogen atom. Whereas the proton moves only 5 cm, the electron (whose mass is 1/1898 of the proton mass) has to move 99.95 m. How can such a tiny particle as the electron know that there is a proton at the huge distance of 100 m? According to current mainstream physics (QED), each of the two particles are helped by an indefinite number of virtual photons which are somehow able to find the other particle, in a similar way as reconnaissance scouts radiating in all directions can bring together two opposing armies.


The currently prevailing philosophical foundation of modern science is reductionist materialism. And such a world view does exclude not only the existence of souls, but also the existence of instantaneous, not mediated actions-at-a-distance: Therefore the need to introduce virtual photons, gravitons and other dubious particles. Because such virtual "reconnaissance scout" particles cannot fulfill their tasks if they obey normal physical conservation laws, immunizing strategies [1] such as e.g. Heisenberg's uncertainty principle or Bohr's complementary principle must be present in order to protect the explanations from logical-mathematical refutation.


In a pandualist framework, there is no need to further explain e.g. Coulomb's law. Instead, this law can be seen as an irreducible physical law, because electrons and protons are like very crude organisms or animals, armed with perception and behavior [2]. Occam's razor says hello.


[1] An immunizing strategy is an argument or an argumentation scheme brought forward in support of a theory, though independent from the theory, which makes the theory more or less invulnerable to rebuttal.

[2] It is obvious that virtual particles meditating the interactions between physical particles such as protons and electrons also must on the one hand be armed with perception and behavior. How could they otherwise bring together an electron with a distant proton? Yet immunizing strategies a la Bohr and Heisenberg make it possible to deny on the other hand that such virtual particles are armed with perception and behavior.


Der technologische Fortschritt der letzten Jahrzehnte war atemberaubend. Trotzdem leben wir in vieler Hinsicht immer noch im dunkelsten Mittelalter. Das hierzu vielleicht überzeugendste Beispiel aus Wissenschaft, Politik und Massenpsychologie:   (Architekten und Ingenieure fordern neue 9/11 Untersuchungen,

Wissenschaftskritik vom Standpunkt des Pandualismus:

o        Wissenschaftskritik (1997-1998)

o        Einsteins Äquivalenz-Prinzip & Schwarze Löcher

Diskussionen über wissenschaftliche Themen:  

o        Gödels Unvollständigkeitssatz entzaubert

o        Streit um die Überabzählbarkeit (und um reelle Zahlen)

o        Kant, Geometrie, ART und Erkenntnistheorie

o        Priorität bei den Feldgleichungen der Allgemeinen Relativitätstheorie: David Hilbert oder Albert Einstein?

o        Streit um die die Masse-Energie-Äquivalenz

o        Newtons Konfusion bezüglich 'Kraft' und 'actio = reactio' bei der Zentrifugalkraft

o        Euler vs. Newton (bezüglich Kraft und Impuls)

o        Kurze Herleitung von E=m c2

o        Paradoxien und andere Ungereimtheiten der speziellen Relativitätstheorie

o        Instantane Fernwirkung versus Maxwells Nahewirkungs-Feldkonzept

o        Zu Gehrckes Plagiats-Vorwürfen an Einstein bezüglich der Gerber-Einstein Formel zur Perihel-Anomalie

o        Einfaches Experiment zur Ausbreitung des Coulomb-Felds widerlegt Relativitätstheorie


o        Absurd-groteskes kommentiert

© – No rights reserved – Contact:  – Wolfgang G. Gasser – 2017-05-05